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Better than 2D cell-based assays, 3D tissue assemblies provide the best compromise between ease of use and in vivo-like drug responses. There are competing methods to achieve best responses.

1) Cell Assembly Programming - CAP developed by HOF Therapeutics. Mixed cell coculture taken through steps to prepare cells to sort and differentiate into complex structures. Proprietary, not NIH funded but wants protocol. Provides detailed fine structures, including multiple tissue layer types, follicles, glands, and ducts. An ideal bio-ink?

2) Layered Method - Mesenchymal cells solidified in collagen, later epithelial cells layered on top. Ex., Mattek proprietary, NIH funded over a hundred grants without protocol access. Sold to BICO Sweden.

3) Organoids - a 3D miniaturized version of an organ but without any specific requirement to qualify. Typically contains stem cells and an exogenous matrix in a typically inside-out ball or sphere. May, or may not, contain functional fine structures.

4) Gestational Organoids - embryonic stem cells can be taken through developmental steps even after an embryo is disrupted into stem cells. Months of precise timing of growth factor/cytokine treatments leads to 3D models.

5) Inkjet or bio printing - placement of cells is achieved using a computer driven printhead, for larger scale models. Less capable of producing fine structures such as glands and ducts.


We manufacture human skin, bone, lung and intestine which is important for use as a model to develop medical treatments, consumer products and cosmetics. Dr. Hoeffler made a pivotal contribution in 2000 with his scientific paper entitled “Spontaneous Cell Sorting of Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes Creates an Organotypic Human Skin Equivalent", advancing the concept of triggering cells to migrate into correct position, rather than attempting to position them by layering them using, or consecutive layering. We received criticism at the time, but this is now used as the platform for organ creation in some of the best research. 

Below: our technology yields full-thickness skin. See gallery for more images of the results of our CAP organ technology.

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